A Winter Workout for Summer Success Trail Running

Since winter typically drapes the mountains in Montana in snow, finding snow-free trails with sustained elevation gain is a challenge from December through April. A couple winter alternatives to running mountain trails are back country skiing and uphill walking on a treadmill.

Backcountry Skiing or Ski Mountaineering

I’m not going to elaborate on this much, but climbing (skinning) up a mountain on skis is a low impact strength and cardio workout. If you are a skier, you know what I mean. I you are not, consider adding backcountry or ski mountaineering to your activity list.

Walking Uphill on Treadmill with Weight Vest

Assuming you have access to a treadmill, walking uphill at a steep incline is great way to develop strength and aerobic endurance. Since trail running often incorporates power walking up steep sections, walking up an inclined treadmill has direct carry over to summer mountain running.

My personal favorite is hill repeats on the treadmill while wearing a weight vest. I keep the treadmill speed at a constant 4.5 mph and vary the incline between 0% grade (level) and 15% (or as steep as the particular treadmill will go). Donning a weight vest makes the workout a challenge even when the speed is at a walking pace.

4.5 mph (13:20 minutes per mile) Brisk but Manageable Walking Pace

Walking at 4.5 mph is moving along at a good clip. This speed is manageable for walking but it certainly is not dawdling. It conditions one to walk briskly with purpose – which is often a challenge when encountering steep uphills while running in the mountains. Think about it – an average pace of 4.5 mph for the Ridge Run would yield a blazing time of about 4 and a half hours. So it is moving right along. Since steep mountain trails force you to walk, you might as well get used to walking fast.

The 3 minute Hill

A hard work interval of 3 minutes is associated with conditioning the cardio vascular system and increasing VO2max. At 4.5 mph and 15% grade while wearing a 22lb weight vest, I can manage work intervals of 2 to 5 minutes then have to back the incline down to 0% to recover. If I am out of shape, it only takes about 2 minutes to reach exhaustion with legs tightening and lungs burning. As I get in better shape, I can last at least 5 minutes before I have to lower the incline back to level to catch my breath.

A workout will consist of between 3 to 9 hill repeats of 3 minutes in duration at 15% grade and 3 minutes of recovery at 0% grade.

I’ve found some treadmills feel easier than others – even at the supposed same speed and incline. So there are obvious calibration differences from treadmill to treadmill. Adjust the speed and incline so you can do 3 minutes uphill followed by 3 minutes level at least 3 times in a row.

Walking Uphill is Low Impact allowing Healing while still Building or Maintaining Fitness

An advantage of doing the hill repeats at a walk is that walking is much lower impact than running. This gives the feet, ankles, knees, hips and associated connective tissue a break. You can still get a good workout, but injuries and accumulated damage that you may have sustained over the summer have a chance to heal.

Finding a Weight Vest

Weight Vests vary from affordable to costly for the fancy ones. Mine weighs 22lbs. It is comfortable and works fine for walking. It does bounce a bit while running. Look for one that form fits and weighs about 15% of your body weight. Perhaps you can find a gym or sports center that has weight vests and high incline treadmills as part of their repository of equipment.

An alternative is to load up a back pack with some water bottles. A gallon of water weighs 8lbs.

My Low Cost 22lb Weight Vest

My Low Cost 22lb Weight Vest

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Quantifying Running Economy with a Power Meter

The last few decades have seen a revolution in the personal quantification of running performance.

Background of Technology Breakthroughs in Measuring Running Performance

Stop Watch

Timex Ironman Watch

Timex Ironman Watch

The revolution started with sport wrist watches like the Timex Ironman back in the 1980s that allowed athletes to conveniently record and recall split times while running. No coach standing on the side of the track yelling out splits needed.

This gave us instant feedback on time to cover a known distance and thus deriving pace. This knowledge was so handy and useful for interval training on the track for example.

Heart Rate Monitors

Polar Heart Rate Monitor

Polar Heart Rate Monitor

Shortly after the sports watch, came heart rate monitors from Polar that gave us real time insight into our heart rate. The heart rate monitor gives instant feedback on cardiovascular effort. Information on heart rate is useful for monitoring effort to prevent over or under exertion.

Heart rate is very individualized as everyone is different in cardiac capacity and output. Heart rate is a great measure of effort and useful for comparisons between workouts for an individual. It has little value in comparisons between different people. A race is not won by the person with the highest or lowest heart rate, but by the person that is the fastest over the distance no matter what the heart rate.

There is a whole science that has evolved around training using heart rate. And a whole science that has evolved about using heart rate variability to measure health and monitor for adaption to training and over trained states.


Within a few years after the availability of heart rate monitors was the GPS revolution. One of the first on the market was Garmin with watches that would display running speed (pace), average speed, distance traveled, elevation gain etc. GPS became an extremely useful and convenient technology for directly quantifying running performance.

Power Meters

Next stop and the current stop on the technology train is Power Meters. Bicycles have had Power Meters for a decade or so now, but this technology is just now becoming available to runners.

RPM2 rpm2.com

Stryd stryd.com

The beauty of a power meter is that it gives real time feedback on energy expenditure and physical effort.

In my opinion, power meters will bring on a change and revolution in training as great as heart rate monitors and GPS devices did previously. Having a power meter will change the way you train.

For bicycles, the use of power meters has focused on maximizing power output and maintaining power output during a workout or race. Less attention has been paid to efficiency or economy. This is because on a bike, economy is less dependent and in control of the biker and more dependent on the bike hardware.

For running, efficiency and economy is primarily in the control of the runner. So it is natural to want to focus attention on economy and maximize economy as well as power output. So the question becomes, how does one attain a useful value of running economy from a power meter?

Proposed Useful Mathematical Formula for Running Economy

Here is my proposal for a useful mathematical formula for running economy. It is only possible to get a real time value of running economy when you couple a power meter with a GPS device. Once you know your instant value of your running economy, you can experiment and modify the way you run and get real time feedback on what helps and what hinders your running economy. This is my wish list for the companies that are developing power meters for runners.

If I still had an engineering business and a budget I would develop a watch size wearable GPS device that could continuously monitor and display a value of running economy. A shoe or foot bed with force plates and accelerometers would have to communicate wirelessly (blue tooth) with the watch. An accelerometer clipped to the waist and one in the watch would add more data refining the calculation of power. Once you have pace from the GPS and power from the power meter you can derive running economy. The definition of Running Economy becomes:

Running Economy is Ratio of Pace to Power

Running Economy = Pace / Power

To get values of Running Economy that are simple to work with, I propose using SI units of Meters for distance, Watts for Power and Pace expressed in Meters per Minute.

Using these units will typically yield values near but less than 1.0. Some may prefer to represent this as a % by multiplying by 100.

Some examples are helpful to illustrate the calculations. These examples are derived and simplified from some actual personal measurements and tests.

Example A

  • Running Economy of 0.75
  • Pace of 300 Meters per Minute (5:20 per Mile)
  • Power of 400 Watts
  • Running Economy = 300 Meters per Minute / 400 Watts = 0.75

Example B

  • Running Economy of 0.67
  • Pace of 240 Meters per Minute (6:40 per Mile)
  • Power of 360 Watts
  • Running Economy = 240 Meters per Minute / 360 Watts = 0.67

Example C

  • Running Economy of 0.80
  • Pace of 200 Meters per Minute (8:00 per Mile)
  • Power of 250 Watts
  • Running Economy = 200 Meters per Minute / 250 Watts = 0.80

It is interesting to note that this particular runner is less efficient at a moderate pace as compared to a fast pace and an easy pace. A possible explanation (this is from firsthand experience of this particular runner’s training history) is that the runner had developed better economy at the paces that they spend the most time training at. In this case, fast interval running is done at 5:20 pace (300 Meters per Minute) and easy running is done around 8:00 pace (200 Meters per Minute). This particular runner is less experienced at running 240 Meters per Minute and has not naturally developed their economy at this particular pace.

Obviously power will go up with the weight of the runner lowering running economy. So it may be helpful to normalize Running Economy by Weight. Doing this, Running Economy by Weight can be compared between different runners.

These are just some preliminary thoughts on Running Economy. It will be interesting to see what products and their features become available in the next few years. It is my desire to see a real time read out of Running Economy on a watch. With that information, a runner has feedback on what form, cadence and other adjustments maximize their economy.

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Hoka Clifton after Race Review

After 19 Ridge Runs, the Hoka Clifton worked better for the Ridge Run than any other shoe I have used. That is right, on race day, I chose the Clifton over the Nike Wildhorse. Granted, the course surface conditions in 2015 were ideal – dry, but not so dry as to be dusty or loose and pebbly.

On the other hand, if the conditions were wet, muddy or snowy, they would have forced me to use a shoe with a more aggressive outsole and I would not be writing this.

My feet felt good the whole way – no blisters or battered toes. The Cliftons afford plush cushioning at the expense of a bit of performance, rebound and quickness. I did trip and took a hard fall once. Admittedly that was my fault, not the shoes. It occurred because I lost concentration thinking about how good things were going – irony.


The drawback of the Hoka Clifton, is that it is a fragile shoe. After a just a dozen or so training miles and the 20 miles in the Ridge Run, this pair is nearly trashed with limited life left in them. The rubber outsole pieces are already ripping off.

Hoka Clifton Rubber Outsole Ripping Off

Hoka Clifton Rubber Outsole Ripping Off

From past experience, gluing them back on is only a temporary fix. The welded overlays on the upper have also separated. The sole area that does not have the rubber pieces is chewed and shaved from rocks.

HHoka Clifton Sole after 20 mile Race

Hoka Clifton Sole after 20 mile Race

Deep cuts form in the sole where sharp rocks cut into the soft material. Perhaps the Challenger ATR trail version of the Clifton is more robust, but the rubber outsole pieces only cover the same area, however they stick out more on the ATRs and would probably catch and tear off even sooner than the Clifton’s.


There were a couple minor modifications I made to the shoes. In the heel area, I added a make shift rock plate. Fabricated out of a plastic Yogurt container, it fit in the shoe under the insole and was held in place with double sided tape.

Hoka Clifton with Rock Plate

Hoka Clifton with Rock Plate

In training, I noticed sharp rocks would poke me in the heel even through the thick Hoka sole. Right under the center of the heel, there is no rubber outsole and a cutaway yielding a less cushioned zone – see previous pictures. This makes the center of the heel a vulnerable spot. This thin piece of plastic as a rock plate worked perfectly.

Instead of the Hoka insoles, I used the insoles from my Nike Wildhorse shoes. The Nike insoles have a grippier surface preventing my foot from sliding in the shoe. I also added a partial insole under the metatarsals and arch to give my foot something to grip – Skecher Gorunerize .

Wish List

For smooth trails, the Hoka Clifton is a wonderful shoe just the way it is. For rocky and rugged conditions, it still works, but gets beat up quickly and has a couple vulnerabilities.

If I was to make a single change to the Clifton to make it more rock ready, I would add a thin rubber outsole with some small knobs that covered the whole bottom of the foot.

Nike Waffle Racer

Nike Waffle Racer

Think the old Nike Waffle Racer outsole. This might add a little weight, but it would prevent the need of adding a rock plate and it would add significant durability as there would be no individual rubber pieces on the sole to get ripped off.

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Top Shoe Picks for this Year’s 2015 Ridge Run

This summer, I have been doing my Ridge Run training in Hoka Cliftons and also in the Nike Wildhorse. Not sure yet which shoe will get picked for the actual race. Either one would make a good choice. The Cliftons are cushier and more forgiving then the Wildhorse on the rocky Ridge Run course. However, the Wildhorse is demonstrating more durability as the Cliftons are getting chewed up by the terrain. The Ginger Runner has some informative and entertaining reviews of the Clifton and Wildhorse. If you are looking for a running shoe, they are worth the time to view.

Clifton Review:


Clifton 2 Review: (Interesting the comment about the 2 being narrower. I saw this with a new pair of the originals compared to a used pair. After putting some miles in the new pair it eventually grew to match the old pair in width.)


Challenger ATR Review: (The trail version of the Clifton)




Wildhorse 2: (Out of the 3 versions of the Wildhorse the first is the best. You can still find them at some liquidators such as eBay for cheap)


Wildhorse 3:

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Hoka Clifton Running Shoe Review

Hoka One One got a lot of things right with the Clifton. In my experience, it is Hoka’s best shoe yet. For several years, I’ve been using Hokas for some (certainly not all) of my trail running. The Cliftons are a much different and better shoe then the Mafates and Bondis that I have used in the past. My only experience is using the Cliftons on trails, where they work really well. In my opinion, they would be a good shoe for the Bridger Ridge Run.

On the road or track, the Clifton feels mushy and unresponsive and I prefer other shoes.

What is so Good about the Hoka Clifton?

Light Weight

Without the insoles, a size 10 Clifton weighs 7.8 ounces for the right shoe and 8.1 ounces for the left. This is refreshingly light for such a cushioned shoe. Hoka’s quality control seems to be unable to match weights left to right as I have seen this in nearly all their shoes. Their heavier shoe models can have even more egregious asymmetries. A second pair of size 10s I own interestingly weighs the exactly same. 7.8 For the right and 8.1 for the left. At least there is consistency between pairs.

Hoka Clifton Mens 10 Right 7.8 Oz

Hoka Clifton Mens 10 Right 7.8 Oz

Hoka Clifton Mens 10 Left 8.1 Oz

Hoka Clifton Mens 10 Left 8.1 Oz


Compared to the say the Bondi B, the Clifton actually flexes at the ball of the foot. This is a welcome change from the board like feel of other Hoka and thick soled shoes. It helps relieve the pressure on the back of my heels when going uphill. After the steep terrain of the Bridger range, my feet are less beat up when using the Cliftons as compared to most other shoes.

Snug Fit

The fit is a bit narrow and snug. The narrowness is the source of complaints about the Cliftons that I have seen in other reviews. The upper is thin flexible and cloth like. For me, the compliant upper requires a snug narrow fit to keep the shoe from being sloppy. The combination works.


Although not as stiff and thick as other Hoka models, the Clifton still has a huge amount of padding in the sole and offers protection from all but the biggest baddest sharpest rocks. The thin upper doesn’t offer much shelter from rocks hitting the sides of your feet. Fortunately, I have not had any run ins in that regard.

Fairly Stable

Shoes with a thick sole like the Clifton scare me because they tend to be unstable and prone to ankle twists. The Clifton is more stable than I expected. Perhaps the soft flexible shoe adapts and conforms to uneven terrain, rocks and debris in the trail helping the stability.

Modifications I’ve Made:


The stock insoles are very thin. This makes them very lightweight at 0.4 ounces. A more typical insole is close to 1.0 ounce. They are so paper thin that they tend to shift and wrinkle. Hoka uses double sticky tape to try and keep them in place. My preference is for a more built up insole giving my foot something to grip so I replaced the insoles.

Hoka Clifton Thin Insoles with Tape

Hoka Clifton Thin Insoles with Tape


The Clifton’s tongue  is very thin offering little padding between the laces and instep of the foot. My remedy was to replace the stock round laces with some flat laces that spread out the pressure and are more comfortable.

Hoka Clifton Modified with Flat Laces

Hoka Clifton Modified with Flat Laces

Heel Loop

Perhaps the heel loop helps with putting the shoes on and off. It looks like a potential hazard to catch on a rock or debris so I cut them off.

Hoke Clifton Heel Strap

Hoke Clifton Heel Strap

The Clifton 2

When I heard that Hoka was replacing the Clifton with the Clifton 2, I went out and bought another pair of the original Cliftons. I’ve been burnt to many times by shoe manufactures that bring out a revision and change the shoe in a direction not to my liking. Even Hoka is guilty of this. For example, the orginal Bondi was a great shoe, but with every revision it seems to get worse; at least for me. Skechers has evolved the revolutionary GORun into an conventional (unremarkable) shoe as they revised it with the GORun 2, 3, and 4.

Now that the Clifton 2 is out, from what I hear, the only changes are to the upper – that it feels and performs the same. Good, I’ll be able to still get a shoe I like a year from now. The Clifton 2 has a beefier upper with more overlays and a thicker padding on the tongue. This added a bit of weight (about 1 ounce heavier), but it should make it more comfortable and protective.

Here is a recent review of the Clifton 2 and comparison to the original Clifton.

Does the Hoka Clifton Grows Wider with Use?

When I got my second pair of Cliftons, I noticed the new pair was significantly narrower than my old pair. They were the same size, the same color, from the same store (Schnees) and have the same manufacture code. They even weigh the exact same amount. So they should be identical. But the sole width on the old pair was a full half of an inch wider at the ball of the foot than the new pair.

Hoka Clifton Old Shoe Wider than New Shoe

Hoka Clifton Old Shoe Wider than New Shoe

Studying and inspecting the shoes for differences, I came to the conclusion that my old pair had squished out and widened with use. This is the only explanation that I can come up with. Has anyone else had this experience? They certainly have developed more of a pronounced rocker sole as compared to the new pair.

Hoka Clifton gets Rockered With Use

Hoka Clifton gets Rockered With Use

It was back last fall that I got my first pair. Since then, I have used them in 2 trail half marathons (Disco Dash, Arizona Trail), 2 trail 12Ks (Lewis and Clark, Prickly Pair) and have probably another 70 miles of trail running in them. I do not run on the roads or treadmill or track. They still feel great. In fact they feel softer, more comfortable and more stable than the new pair. I took the new pair out for a 7 mile trail run. They seemed to have widened a little. Perhaps the old pair is only 3/8 of an inch wider now. It will be interesting to see if they actually do grow with use and eventually match the width of my first pair. Maybe the runners that think the Clifton is too narrow, need to try a used pair that has been pre-squashed.

Hoka Clifton Used Left Wider than New Right

Hoka Clifton Used Left Wider than New Right

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Louis Zamperini Unbroken, Bob Hayes

Bob Hayes is the oldest person to have completed the Bridger Ridge Run. Bob is a World War II Veteran. Given that World War II ended 70 years ago, you figure Bob has to be at least in his late 80’s. As time has marched on recently, there are less and less World War II Veterans still alive let alone as active as Bob. Bob is still running strong – competing in many races every year.

Bob Hayes, Oldest and Youngest at John Colter Run 2014

Bob Hayes, Oldest and Youngest at John Colter Run 2014

He still demonstrates an infectious enthusiasm for participating in life. Besides his passion for running, you will find him dashing off after a run to make sure he gets back to the Missoula area in time to go dancing.

At 29 seconds into the following video, you catch a glimpse of Bob dancing across the screen left to right. Of course he is wearing a race t-shirt. In this case, a dark green long sleeve.

For the last 30 years, Bob with the help of his sons, has been hosting a race on his ranch in Evaro Montana. The Evaro Mountain Challenge. Some spring, find a reason to journey to Western Montana and check it out.

Over the years, I have had the honor to get acquainted with Bob. He was the minister at my most recent Wedding – a dozen or so years ago.

Bob Hayes as Minister at Wedding

Bob Hayes as Minister at Wedding

And nearly every year, I have had the good fortune to have been able to purchase from Bob some quality beef from his small herd of cattle.

Bob Hayes Kip Sikora Photo

Bob Hayes Kip Sikora Photo

So why am I writing this. As a reminder, that there are some treasures of humanity in this world, like Bob Hayes. Remember to take the time to appreciate and learn from them while you have the chance.

Louis Zamperini

Besides both being in World War II and runners, what does Louis Zamperini have to do with Bob Hayes. Well they kind of look alike, old Bob and Louis.

Bob Hayes

Bob Hayes

Louis Zamperini Photo Credit US Army

Louis Zamperini Photo Credit US Army

Louis Zamperini Photo Credit Peter Weber

Louis Zamperini Photo Credit Peter Weber

Unbroken: Great Book, Good Movie

But what inspired me to write this piece was Bob’s Christmas card from last year.

Bobs Christmas Card Front

Bobs Christmas Card Front

Bobs Christmas Card Back

Bobs Christmas Card Back

In it he mentioned the book “Unbroken” the biography of Louis Zamperini. Interestingly, I had just finished the book the day before I read Bob’s card. It is a tremendous book. Louis’ life and experiences are such a wonderful example of the human spirit’s will to live, endure, survive, fail, forgive and triumph over challenges. Running the Ridge and preparing for it are great exercises in endurance. Although compared to what Louis had to endure, Running the Ridge barely scratches the surface of the concept of endurance.

The movie Unbroken based upon the book came out last year. It is a good movie with beautiful cinematography, but it falls a little flat. It could have been a great movie. It could have been an inspiring timeless masterpiece. But it fails to capture the real essence of Louis and the transcendence of Louis’ spirit that got him through World War II and beyond. Unbroken the movie left out or treated lightly some of the most important aspects of Louis’ life. Such as Louis’ experiences of visions of the heavenly hosts, his bargaining with God and his promise to God if God helped him survive. It left out Louis’ conversion and miraculous healing of PTSD and alcoholism after the war and his act of forgiving his Japanese prison camp tormentors.


Scientific materialists get a little queasy when talking about God, spirit and the intangible. But it is these non-material spiritual aspects of life that give life depth, nuance, mystery and love. Without them, we are just biological robots, intelligent animals marching through a life that has no consequences beyond its limited physical existence.

There is much debate as to why Angelina Jolie left some of the spiritual parts of Louis’ story out of the movie, weakening its message. The standard explanation was the movie was limited in time and it just did not fit in. After preliminary screening of the movie with Louis right before Louis died, Angelina stated that “Louis was OK with leaving those parts out – if people wanted to know the whole story, they could read the book. This way, the movie was not preachy at all.”

For the most part, popular media and Hollywood prefer to ignore at best and ridicule at worst in its treatment of religion and spirituality – especially the Christian religion. So it is understandable that the movie makers of Unbroken chose to leave out some of Louis’ important spiritual experiences. Perhaps they thought it would have broader appeal and be less offensive to a secular audience. Unfortunately in doing so, they rendered the movie less impactful than the book.

A Chance Encounter with Louis Zamperini

A dozen years or so ago, I was in southern California visiting my youngest daughter. She was preparing to move to Hawaii to go live with her brother. If you are on a budget, you can’t take much with you when moving from the mainland to Hawaii. So one of the preparatory steps was to have a yard sale and sell as much of her stuff as possible. As I was standing around trying to be helpful and not look bored with the yard sale, I noticed an older gentleman who was out for a brisk walk. I could tell he was not interested in buying anything, but for some reason perhaps just curiosity as to what was going on, he saw the yard sale and zeroed in on me. Perhaps it was because I was the only “older” person there. Or maybe because he realized I was a peripheral part of the goings on and chatting up me would not take anyone responsible away from the sale proceedings.

Attracting the attention of strangers is not new to me. For some reason, from harmless panhandlers, to street wackos, to TSA agents, to muggers, to predatory kidnappers (yes) I seem to be the first to get singled out and attract attention. I’ve never figured out why. My looks, my size, my posture, my energy? Over the years, out of self-preservation, I have learned to be a bit guarded and distrusting of other people.

Anyway, this older gentleman came up to me and seemed fairly harmless so I was only partially guarded and skeptical of his intentions. His purposeful walk and his clothes betrayed the fact that he was not a street wacko or panhandler. He looked kind of like Bob Hayes. He asked what was going on and why the sale? I explained that my daughter was moving to Hawaii. She had an opportunity to live with her older brother. He was a Naval Aviator stationed in Kaneohe Hawaii. At the mention of this, you could see this guy’s thoughts sore off to other places and times. He opened up divulging that he was stationed in Hawaii during World War II and flew in B-24s. I said my step son flew P3s – a reconnaissance plane. He now introduced himself as Louis and said that his plane went down in the Pacific and he spent 47 days adrift in a life raft. It took me awhile to process the concept of being stuck in a life raft for 47 days and if it could be true. I don’t remember what I said in reply, probably something respectful but perhaps giving away a little bit of skepticism I had regarding this fact. Besides, he was an old man, a stranger, and perhaps senile? Out of his pocket he pulled out a piece of paper that had a short write-up of his World War II experience. I glanced at it, but did not read it till later. I wanted to keep my eyes on Louis.

I introduced him to my daughter explaining that Louis had been stationed in Hawaii during World War II and had survived 47 days adrift in a life raft after his plane went down in the pacific. She was distracted by customers at the yard sale, but did acknowledge that was an impressive accomplishment and she was moving to Hawaii. With that, Louis seemed satisfied and continued on with his walk.

Opportunity Lost – Remembering

That was the end of my chance encounter with Louis Zamperini. At the time, I did not know who he was, I was not a student of track and field pre-World War II. I was unfamiliar with the story of Louis Zamperini. That piece of paper got tucked away somewhere in my files. Over ten years would pass before I thought of that chance encounter again. Last spring, advertisements for the movie Unbroken and the whole surviving 47 days adrift in a raft story was brought to my attention. There was something familiar about the story – especially the part about surviving 47 days in a raft. My memory meeting Louis was triggered. We did not talk long at that yard sale. He did not mention his running, his prisoner of war experience, or his Christian conversion and ministry. All he mentioned was his surviving 47 days a drift. If I wasn’t so guarded and skeptical, perhaps I would have recognized what a gift that chance encounter was and spent a little time walking and talking with Louis Zamperini.

However humble or grand, everyone is special and has a story. You never know who or why you cross paths with someone. Don’t let any opportunity slip away.

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Bridger Ridge Run on Twitter as @BridgerRidgeRun #BridgerRidgeRun

If you use the micro blogging site twitter.com, follow @BridgerRidgeRun for timely updates about the race. Twitter is an efficient medium for short tidbits of information and calendar oriented updates. Note, the twitter handle is not case sensitive. On Twitter, bridgerridgerun is the same as BridgerRidgeRun.

This blog contains an archive of information and advice on the Ridge Run going back several years. It will be updated less frequently than the Twitter account, focusing on content instead of time oriented notices.

It would have saved some typing to use the BRR acronym on Twitter to refer to the Bridger Ridge Run. Unfortunately the handle @BRR was taken and people use the hash tag #BRR to indicate cold. So BridgerRidgeRun it is!

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